Biometric security systems use physical control de acceso biometrico characteristics of the user to allow or deny access. Some examples of characteristics that are used are the iris of the eye, fingerprints, voice, or even odor. Since these characteristics are unique to each individual it is very difficult for someone who is not authorized to again access. This is why biometric access control has become increasingly popular in businesses that contain highly sensitive information or financial assets.
Identification is performed by comparing physical characteristics in one of two ways. The first, requires that the user enter an identification number or pin code. Once the code is entered, the system then compares the biometric characteristics on file for that pin number. If there is a match, the system allows access and of course a mismatch results in a denial. The second way that a biometric security system verifies a person’s identity is to compare the physical characteristics of the person requesting access to a range within the database. If the characteristics fall within that range then access is allowed. This type of identification system uses a true biometrics verification process as no pin number or other form of identification is used.
Enrollment into the system occurs the first time the user tries to gain access. The system uses this first time access to obtain all the information regarding the user’s physical characteristics. When subsequent attempts are made to access the system it compares the initial scan to the one currently being performed. As an example, if iris scanning is being used, the system will scan the iris of the eye and record the information in the database. Depending on the biometric identification being used, there will be a device available where you will either place your hand for reading fingerprints or look into the device to scan your iris. Like fingerprints, the iris of your eye is unique to each person and is unlikely to change over time. This makes it a perfect way to establish identification when using biometric access control. Although just as unique, vein identification is not as common or as widely used. However, it can provide the same level of uniqueness as someone’s iris or fingerprint.
Some biometric systems use behavioral traits such as the way you type, how you speak or the way you write. These behavioral characteristics are then compared to the information stored in a database. Much like enrollment using the iris of your eye, when you first access the system the computer reads how you perform certain behaviors and then records this in the form of code in a database. This is accomplished by providing an electronic writing tablet or audio recording device that analyzes the way you speak or write. In some cases, identification is established by speaking or writing a specific word or phrase. Since the specific word or phrase can be duplicated by either recording someone saying it or using a sample of them writing it, the phrase is often changed so that it is random. Since the person’s way of speaking, typing or writing is specific and unique to that person, it provides a higher level of security and reduces the likelihood of unauthorized persons being able to duplicate it.
A major benefit to biometric access control is that there’s no worry regarding loss of keys, access cards, or sharing of pin numbers. When using a biometric security system, your key for entry is always available. When an employee leaves the organization or security levels need to be reduced, a simple change to the system can remove access without the bother or need for an access card or keys to be returned.
Not too long ago, this type of technology was considered to be futuristic and fodder for spy movies. But as the risk of terrorism, espionage and other major crimes become a major concern many companies as well as government bodies are enlisting the use of biometric security systems to tighten security in the interest of public safety. As criminals become more sophisticated, security systems must keep pace to maintain this level of safety and security.
With the advent of this cutting-edge technology, there are concerns regarding the use of the information collected during the enrollment process. There are those that believe that having biological information on certain individuals has the potential to violate civil rights as well as personal privacy. However, the information stored on each individual is not a visual or real-life representation. The information is stored in the form of code that the computer understands. If viewed by human beings, this information would not make sense or provide any useful meaning.
Depending on the nature of your business and the sensitivity of the information that you maintain, you might opt to utilize a biometric access control system. These systems provide a greater level of security with a decreased risk of shared access. As the need for tighter security increases, biometric security systems will become more commonplace and sophisticated as technology advances.